- Pan Berks Flowchart For Management Of Concerns About Behaviour Consistent With Fabricated Or Induced Illness;
- Pan Berks Chronology Template for Recording Concerns About Behaviour Consistent With Fabricated Or Induced Illness.
In January 2019, the chapter was revised throughout and the Flowchart for Management of Concerns and a Chronology Template was added.
- Protection and Action to be Taken
- Further Information
- Local Information
Fabricated or Induced Illness (FII) is a term used to describes a recognised behaviour whereby a child suffers harm through the deliberate action of her/his main carer and which is attributed by the adult to another cause. It is not a medical diagnosis.
It is a relatively rare but potentially lethal form of abuse.
Concerns will be raised for a small number of children when it is considered that the health or development of a child is likely to be significantly impaired or further impaired by the actions of a carer or carers having fabricated or induced illness.
It is important that the focus is on the outcomes or impact on the child's health and development and not initially on attempts to diagnose the parent or carer.
The range of symptoms and body systems involved in the spectrum of fabricated or induced illness are extremely wide.
Investigation of Fabricated and Induced Illness and assessment of significant harm to a child falls under statutory framework provided by Working Together to Safeguard Children and Safeguarding Children in whom illness is fabricated or induced (Supplementary guidance to Working Together to Safeguard Children). HM Government 2008.
There are four main ways of the carer fabricating or inducing illness in a child:
- Fabrication of signs and symptoms, including fabrication of past medical history;
- Fabrication of signs and symptoms and falsification of hospital charts, records, letters and documents and specimens of bodily fluids;
- Exaggeration of symptoms/real problems. This may lead to unnecessary investigations, treatment and/or special equipment being provided;
- Induction of illness by a variety of means.
The above four methods are not mutually exclusive.
Harm to the child may be caused through unnecessary or invasive medical treatment and/or investigations, which may be harmful and possibly dangerous, based on symptoms that are falsely described or deliberately manufactured by the carer, and lack independent corroboration.
Impact on the child
The child might experience unnecessary medical tests or treatments, develop anxiety about their own health and survival, anger, a sense of betrayal of trust and suicidal thoughts or develop a dependency on the carer and being an "ill person". FII may not necessarily result in physical harm but there may be concerns about the child suffering emotional harm. They may suffer emotional harm as a result of an abnormal relationship with their parent and /or disturbed family relationships.
Concern may be raised at the possibility of a child suffering significant harm as a result of having illness fabricated or induced by their carer.
- Reported symptoms and signs found on examination are not explained by any medical condition from which the child may be suffering; or
- Physical examination and results of medical investigations do not explain reported symptoms and signs; or
- There is an inexplicably poor response to prescribed medication and other treatment; or
- New symptoms are reported on resolution of previous ones; or
- Reported symptoms and found signs are not observed in the absence of the carer; or
- Over time the child is repeatedly presented with a range of symptoms to different professionals in a variety of settings; or
- The child's normal, daily life activities, such as attending school, are being curtailed beyond that which might be expected from any known medical disorder from which the child is known to suffer; or
- Excessive use of any medical website or alternative opinions; or
Exaggeration of symptoms; or
Interference with treatment by overdosing, not administering drugs; or interfering with medical equipment; or
Claim psychological illness in child; or
- Continuously seek specialist treatments and equipment not needed often from many sources including internet.
There may be a number of explanations for these circumstances and each requires careful consideration and review.
Concerns may also be raised by other professionals who are working with the child and/or parents/carers who may notice discrepancies between reported and observed medical conditions, such as the incidence of fits.
Professionals who have identified concerns about a child's health should discuss these with the child's GP or consultant paediatrician responsible for the child's care.
4. Protection and Action to be Taken
Where there is a suspicion of FII, practitioners should consider this guidance carefully when fulfilling their role in assessing and investigating their concerns effectively.
Agencies and practitioners need to be mindful that where a child has suffered, or is likely to suffer, significant harm, it is essential to make a referral to Children's social care in accordance with the Referrals Procedure.
Children who have had illness fabricated or induced require coordinated help from a range of agencies.
Joint working is essential, and all agencies and professionals should:
- Be alert to potential indicators of illness being fabricated or induced in a child;
- Be alert to the risk of harm which individual abusers may pose to children in whom illness is being fabricated or induced;
- Share and help to analyse information so that an informed assessment can be made of children's needs and circumstances including an up to date Chronology, which should be integrated across agencies to ensure a clearer picture of events;
- Contribute to whatever actions and services are required to safeguard and promote the child's welfare;
- Assist in providing relevant evidence in any criminal or civil proceedings;
- Consider undertaking a complex strategy meeting, chaired by someone of appropriate authority (Head of Service/Assistant Director).
Consultation with peers or colleagues in other agencies is an important part of the process of making sense of the underlying reasons for these signs and symptoms. The characteristics of fabricated or induced illness are that there is a lack of the usual corroboration of findings with signs or symptoms or, in circumstances of diagnosed illness, lack of the usual response to effective treatment. It is this puzzling discrepancy which alerts the medical staff to possible harm being caused to the child.
The signs and symptoms require careful medical evaluation for a range of possible diagnoses.
Normally, the doctor would tell the parent/s that s/he has not found the explanation for the signs and symptoms and record the parental response.
Where there are concerns about possible fabricated or induced illness, the signs and symptoms require careful medical evaluation for a range of possible diagnoses by a paediatrician.
If no paediatrician is already involved, the child's GP should make a referral to a paediatrician.
Where, following a set of medical tests being completed, a reason cannot be found for the reported or observed signs and symptoms of illness, further specialist advice and tests may be required.
Normally the consultant paediatrician will tell the parent(s) that they do not have an explanation for the signs and symptoms.
Parents should be kept informed of further medical assessments/ investigations/tests required and of the findings but at no time should concerns about the reasons for the child's signs and symptoms be shared with parents if this information would jeopardise the child's safety and compromise the child protection process and/or any criminal investigation.
When a possible explanation for the signs and symptoms is that they may have been fabricated or induced by a carer and as a consequence the child's health or development is or is likely to be impaired, a referral should be made to Children's social care Services or the Police (see Referrals Procedure):
- Lead responsibility for the coordination of action to safeguard and promote the child's welfare lies with Children's social care;
- Any suspected case of fabricated or induced illness may involve the commission of a crime and therefore the police should always be involved;
- The paediatric consultant is the lead health professional and therefore has lead responsibility for all decisions pertaining to the child's health care.
In cases where the police obtain evidence that a criminal offence has been committed by the parent or carer, and a prosecution is contemplated, it is important that the suspect's rights are protected by adherence to the Police and Criminal Evidence Act 1984.
Whilst cases of fabricated or induced illness are relatively rare, the term encompasses a spectrum of behaviour which ranges from a genuine belief that the child is ill through to deliberately inducing symptoms by administering drugs or other substances. At the extreme end it is fatal, or has life changing consequences for the child.
Contrary to normal professional relationships with parents, being challenging about suspicions from the start may scare off a parent thus making it more difficult to gain evidence. There may be an unintended consequence in increasing the harmful behaviour in an attempt to be convincing.
Parents who harm their children this way may appear to be plausible, convincing and have developed a friendly relationship with practitioners before suspicions arise. They may also demonstrate a seemingly advanced and sophisticated medical knowledge which can make them difficult to challenge. Practitioners should demonstrate professional curiosity and challenge in an appropriate way and with coordination between the agencies. Practitioners should also be aware of the potential splitting of the professional group and the polarisation of views.
Fabricated or Induced Illness by Carers: A Practical Guide for Paediatricians, Royal College of Paediatricians and Child Health, Oct 2009